This post is in response to Güven’s CELTA Diaries Day 4.
It is important that the input sessions of the first week starts exposing trainees to how they can focus on and clarify language in the classroom, whether that language be included in their lesson aims or emergent.
This also sets the groundwork for trainees to start including a Language Analysis sheet in their lesson plan (from TP 3 onwards), and gives them a basis from which to work on Assignment 2 – Language Awareness.
With this in mind, I timetabled a session on Clarifying Meaning on Day 4, with a focus on lexis. But before that, I scheduled for the second tutor to conduct a session on giving instructions and language grading with a focus on the use of ICQs (Instruction Checking Questions) and examples/demos to clarify instructions to tasks.
Some tutors prefer to timetable the session on instruction-giving and language grading on the first day of the CELTA, but I have noticed that such a session often could be meaningless to trainees with no experience of classroom management, and have found trainees tend to understand and take on the suggestions given when they have had the experience of setting up tasks and not being fully understood.
Not unlike the belief that students would better understand and be more motivated to learn the lexis/grammar that have emerged from their use of the language and the gaps in their knowledge, it is perhaps easier for trainees to notice the gap once they have actually tried to teach and encountered problems with that particular area.
It is also in this spirit that the session on Clarifying Meaning (of lexis) was timetabled for Day 4 and another session on Focusing on language (grammar and then lexis) for Day 5, and not any earlier.
On Day 4, the session started with me writing up ‘to binge’, ‘to defeat’, and ‘langoustine vs crab’ on the board. I then asked trainees to discuss with their partners how they would clarify meaning of these lexical items.
In open class feedback, we came up with these different ways of clarifying lexis:
- Using pictures/drawings/flashcards
- Using photos/Google images
- Using mime/Acting it out
- Using realia
- Giving examples
- Giving an example situation
- Using CCQs (Concept Checking Questions, e.g. ‘to binge’ – ‘Do I drink/eat a lot?’ ‘Do I drink/eat a lot in a short time?’)
- And a combination of 2 or more of the above.
I then gave trainees a handout with a list of the following words and they had to decide with their partners how they would go about clarifying them.
How would you clarify these words?
- to pay a fine
- to throw a tantrum
- to steal vs to rob
- frustrated (adj)
- to go on strike
- to sip a cup of coffee
- credit card (n)
- to fidget
- suntan vs sunburn
- heavy rain
- heavy bag
In open class feedback, I then pretended to be a student (and a particularly daft one at that) and nominated different trainees to clarify each of these lexical items for me. ‘To pay a fine’ was an especially good one to start on as it forces some of these issues to emerge:
(a) Spending too long setting the scene
‘I was driving a car. And I needed to stop. So I needed to find a parking space. I couldn’t find one. So I decided to park on the side of the road. This is not allowed and is illegal. I did it anyway. A policeman saw this. So he came up to me and gave me a ticket. I had to pay a fine.’
Such wordy and unnecessary scenario-setting could confuse students, introduce more unfamiliar new words (e.g. parking space, came up to somebody, illegal, give a ticket) and increase unnecessary teacher talking time.
Instead, this would suffice:
‘I was driving too quickly. The policeman stopped me. I had to pay a fine.’
(b) Explaining Explaining Explaining
‘So, ‘to pay a fine’ means to give the policeman money because you have done something wrong, like in this case, you parked in the wrong place and it is not allowed. And so you have to pay a penalty. In English, we call this penalty a fine.’
Like the wordy scenario-setting, wordy explanations often means students are not involved cognitively in the clarification process and might either get confused or simply tune out. And there’s no way of checking if they really understand what you have just said.
Instead, try asking CCQs (see below).
(c) Not nailing the meaning of the language item or asking irrelevant CCQs
‘Does this mean I give the policeman money?’ (Yes)
‘Why did I give him money?’ (Because I parked in the wrong place)
At this point, I feign stupidity and say, “Ah! So teacher, ‘to pay a fine’ is same as ‘give coffee money to policeman’?”
Indeed, those CCQs could easily lead one to misconstrue that paying a fine means to give the policeman a bribe.
One extra CCQ is needed to ensure learners do not misunderstand the lexical item.
‘Who receives the money? Does the policeman keep it? Or the government?’ (Technically, the government)
As for irrelevant CCQs, here’s one of my favourites:
Lexical item: Season (Level: Elementary)
CCQ: What seasons are there? (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter)
Okay that was a good CCQ…wait till you hear the next one…
CCQ: Does this mean I put salt and vinegar on something? (DOH!!!)
On Day 5, I look at the clarification of meaning for grammatical structures, and look at how to systematically focus on MFP (Meaning, Form and Pronunciation).
But I’ll leave that for my next post…